Open Conference Systems, 3rd KOBI Congress, International and National Conferences

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PENGARUH POLA TANAM DAN JENIS MULSA ORGANIK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN GULMA DAN HASIL TANAMAN PADA SISTEM PERTANIAN ORGANIK
Memed Memed, Uswatun Nurjanah, Nanik Setyowati

Last modified: 2020-11-21

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Weeds are a major problem in organic farming systems. Weed control in organic farming systems is carried out without synthetic chemicals, among others, through planting patterns and the use of mulch. This study aimed to determine the best cropping pattern and type of mulch in the intercropping system of sweet corn and red beans in organic farming systems. The research was conducted in September-December 2018, in Air Duku Village, Selupu Rejang District, Rejang Lebong Regency, Bengkulu, 1054 m above sea level. The design used in this experiment was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two factors. The first factor was cropping patterns consisted of monocultures sweet corn, monocultures red bean, and intercropping of sweet corn and red beans. The second factor was organic mulch types consisting of rice straw, coffee husk, rice husk mulch, and control (without mulch). Data were analyzed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) 5% level. The significant results were further test by LSD. Intercropping can suppress weeds on red beans while not in sweet corn. Weeds dry weight in intercropping of sweet corn and red beans was smaller than that in monocultures. The yield of sweet corn planted in an intercropping was similar to that of monoculture, while red bean planted monoculture, the number of seeds/plant and seeds weight/plot was higher than that of intercropping. The rice straw mulch application can suppress weed growth and increase the growth and yield of red beans. Growth and yield of sweet corn were not significantly different between control plants (non-mulched) and rice straw, coffee husk, or rice husk mulch treatment.

Keywords: intercropping, monoculture, organic mulch, sweet corn, peanuts, organic farming.

 

ABSTRAK

 

Gulma merupakan masalah utama dalam sistem pertanian organik. Pengendalian gulma pada sistem pertanian organik dilakukan tanpa menggunakan bahan kimia sintetik antara lain melalui pengaturan pola tanam serta penggunaan mulsa.  Penelitian bertujuan untuk menentukan pola tanam dan jenis mulsa terbaik pada sistem tanam tumpangsari jagung manis dan kacang merah pada sistem pertanian organik. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan September-Desember 2018, di  Desa Air Duku, Kecamatan Selupu Rejang, Kabupaten Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu dengan ketinggian tempat1054 m dpl. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok Lengkap (RAKL) dengan 2 faktor perlakuan. Faktor pertama pola tanam terdiri dari monokultur jagung manis, monokultur kacang merah dan tumpangsari jagung manis dan kacang merah. Faktor kedua adalah jenis mulsa organik yang terdiri dari mulsa jerami padi, mulsa kulit kopi, mulsa sekam padi dan kontrol (tanpa mulsa). Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis varian (Anava) taraf 5%. Data yang menunjukkan pengaruh nyata di uji lanjut dengan uji BNT. Pola tanam tumpangsari dapat menekan gulma pada tanaman kacang tanah namun tidak pada jagung manis.Jagung manis yang ditanam dengan pola tanam tumpangsari hasilnya sama dengan pola monokultur sedangkan monokultur kacang merah jumlah biji/tan serta bobot biji/petaknya lebih tinggi dibandingkan tumpangsari. Aplikasi mulsa jerami padi dapat menekan pertumbuhan gulma serta meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan hasil kacang tanah. Pertumbuhan dan hasil jagung manis tidak berbeda antara tanaman kontrol (tidak bermulsa) maupun yang diberi mulsa jerami padi, kulit kopi maupun sekam padi.

 

Kata kunci: tumpangsari, monokultur, mulsa organik, jagung manis, kacang tanah, pertanian organik.



Keywords


tumpangsari, monokultur, mulsa organik, jagung manis, kacang tanah, pertanian organik